It is that time of year again. Whether it is three feet deep in snow or bustling with cover crop and fava beans, your garden is calling you. Seed packets have arrived or are en route. The sun is slanting, peeking out more from behind the crowds and the soil is waking up.
But that is just the thing, if you want to have a truly successful vegetable garden, the soil is the place to start. You need to get, in a word, grounded.
My favorite way, to date, to rejuvenate my garden soil is with lasagna gardening, also known as sheet mulching. I first discovered this in Gaia's Garden, the permaculture bible, and have employed one form or another of sheet mulching in six different locations at two different homes. Despite clay and buried toys (hey, I live in suburbia), I've always had miraculous results. The most basic method is this (water in between each step):
- aerate the soil with a pitch fork, lawn butler, what have you
- cover prepared soil with layered newspaper or cardboard (I prefer cardboard because it doesn't blow away as easily and because I don't read the newspaper but do order more than I should online)
- cover cardboard with manure, chicken poop, manure from a horse boarding facility, goat farm, what have you
- cover manure with straw or dried leaves or similar
- cover straw or leaves with a thick layer of compost
Sources differ on how much to layer or may add additional steps or layers. That's fine but it doesn't have to be complicated. I followed these steps as half-heartedly as possible last year and still moved from thick clay to loose, rich soil teeming with worms and other bugs.
"Cover crop" is a term used for plants grown in a particular area to fix large amounts of nitrogen in the soil, provide a habitat for beneficial insects and choke out the weeds.
I plant a cover crop ever fall, like clockwork, for the last 5 or 6 years. Sometimes, I couple the cover crop with sheet mulch. Sometimes, I just throw it on a vacant area in the garden. Cover crop can also be planted in the spring but as I have a smallish garden in a temperate climate, I stick with fall.
My fava beans where next summer's pumpkin patch will be.
I always do a cover crop bed of favas (usually where the pumpkins will grow because the timing works out) and a bed of mixed seeds from Peaceful Valley Farm supply. I am sure you can get cover crop seeds through most seed or farm supply outlets or at your local nursery. The mix usually includes vetch, peas, bell beans, clover, barley and so on.
My mixed cover crop in late February.
I cannot vouch for the amount of nitrogen the cover crop is allegedly "fixing" in my soil and I don't notice improvements in the soil or fertility as with the sheet mulch. I do, however, notice an increase in beneficial insects - mostly lady bugs - and other critters - a toad once! There are also fewer weeds and plenty of greens to feed the chickens over-winter. Bonus? I don't cut down the fava beans until we've eaten most of them (timing works with my pumpkin patch). I also harvest a number of the peas as snap peas before mowing down the cover crop (and adding it to the compost pile). Final plus to the cover crop? It's pretty.
I first came across this idea on Pinterest. Basically, you dig a trench, put down some cardboard, then a pile of wood or sticks, cover with sod, then straw or leaves (if desired) and the top it all with soil. It sounds like the sheet mulching method but apparently the decaying wood creates (1) a warmer microclimate in the garden and (2) the bed requires little to no irrigation.
My mini Hugelkultur bed - before the sod, straw and soil. See! I told you it was small.
The latter interests me given the little rain our region has had this winter. So that, and the fact that we removed a tree this year, lead me to try out this "hill culture bed" on a very small scale. Supposedly, the bed needs to have wood stacked to a minimum height of 2'. I'm going to be very generous with my mound, call it 2' and assume that it is the thought that counts. Because new wood gives off a fair amount of nitrogen as it decays, I'm planting something that is not as affected by higher nitrogen levels - beans. I'll report back on my little Hugelkultur later this year.
* Here's another link to Hugelkultur.
My three wooden raised beds.
Finally, if your garden is a temporary one, one that you'd like to get growing in mighty quick or if you just feel like it, raised bed gardening is a quick way to have have high quality soil in which to plant. I am a fan of raised beds for certain plants - like tomatoes (though I've grown these well in sheet mulched gardens as well) and non-potato root vegetables. My current garden hosts three wooden beds. I am adding one made of sticks and one in a large galvanized trough this season. I've also seen loads of ideas for using rocks, broken concrete, straw bales, and more to form raised beds.
I am working on a raised beds bordered with sticks and branches. This one is in progress. I need to add soil and plants.
Source: Two Men And a Little Farm
So start planning summer's garden. Let your dreams take you wherever they may, as long as you start out grounded.
** I am linking to Homestead Barn Hop and FarmGirl Friday for this post.